In October 2001, the BDI index of the international dry bulk market dropped to 845, the lowest level in the whole year. The index rose slightly in 2002, but not much, closing at 1731 at the end of the year. In the second half of 2003, there was a sharp increase, which soared to 4470 in October and closed at 4467 at the end of the year. In 2004, it maintained a good momentum of growth, reaching a year-round peak of 6101 points and closing at 4438 points at the end of the year. March 2005 was the highest point of the year, 4956, and ended at 2321 at the end of the year. Since 2002, the overall volume of dry bulk cargo has shown an accelerated upward trend. As the global economic development has a great demand for large quantities of basic raw materials, the volume of transportation such as iron ore and coal has grown rapidly, and China, as one of the fastest growing countries in the global economy, has played a very important role. In the past 10 years, the average annual growth rate of bulk dry bulk shipping volume in China is 17%, which is much higher than that in the international market, while 70% of the increase in the world dry bulk shipping market comes from China. Taking iron ore as an example, China imported 148 million tons of iron ore in 2003, accounting for 28.5% of the world's shipping volume. In 2004, the global iron ore shipping volume was 600 million tons, and China imported 208 million tons, accounting for 34.6%. Influenced by the state regulation and control, the growth rate declined in 2005, but there was still an additional demand of 60 million tons. The annual import volume reached 248 million tons, with a growth rate of about 20%. It can be predicted that, driven by China's huge engine, the international dry bulk shipping market will continue to grow in 2006, with an average annual growth rate of 6%.
In terms of oil transportation, the world economy is highly dependent on oil. Experts calculate that for every 1% growth in the global economy, 400,000 barrels of oil will be needed every day. As the main mode of oil transportation, water transportation completes 92% of the oil trade. The global crude oil shipping volume in 2003 was 1.6 billion tons, which was further increased in 2004. It is estimated that the average growth rate of international crude oil shipping volume in 2005-2007 will be about 3%. China's oil demand has increased dramatically in recent years, and has become the second largest oil consumer and importer in the world in 2004. In 2003, China imported 91.12 million tons of crude oil, accounting for 5.4% of global crude oil trade. In 2004, China imported 122 million tons of crude oil, breaking through the 100 million tons barrier for the first time. In 2005, crude oil consumption exceeded 300 million tons, and the gap between supply and demand will be further widened, with crude oil imports reaching 127 million tons in 2005. It is expected that China's demand for oil will maintain a relatively high growth rate in the next few years, which will have a greater and greater impact on international oil shipping.
In container transport, driven by Pacific and Eurasian routes, container trade has grown rapidly since 2002. In 2003, the total volume of international container trade was 79 million TEU, an increase of 8.2% compared with the same period last year. In 2004, the growth rate rose to 11% to 87.7 million TEU. In 2005, Pacific routes will increase by 12%, Asia-Europe routes will increase by 15%, while Atlantic routes will remain stable and increase slightly. In 2005, the overall container volume will increase by about 10% on the original basis. China's container shipping volume accounts for about 20% of the world's total, and more than 60% of the world's container shipping volume is on the Eastern Pacific Route and the Western Asia-Europe Route. China's container throughput reached 75.8 million TEU in 2005, with a growth rate of 23.7%, higher than the world average.
From the perspective of fleet construction,
there are 5700 dry bulk carriers with a total capacity of 29,634.8 million tons, which are distributed in hundreds of shipping companies. China Shipping Company has 579 vessels with 24.405 million tonnes of load; Hong Kong Shipping Company has 261 vessels with 18.19 million tonnes of load. China and Hong Kong have a total capacity of 42.596 million tons, accounting for 14.4% of the world's total. China has 231 shipping companies engaged in international shipping, with a total capacity of 22.1 million tons, ranking ninth in the world. China's shipping enterprises have set up hundreds of wholly-owned, joint-venture shipping enterprises and offices abroad, and the proportion of cargo transported by third countries is increasing day by day.
There are many kinds of cargo transported by international sea, so different types of ships and handling equipments are adopted for different types of cargo. For specific cargo, Qihai introduces how to transport super large cargo from ship type and loading and unloading equipment.
1. Trucks. The truck is transported by PCTC (PURE CAR TRUCK CARRIER). Its main feature is that it can accommodate large trucks on single deck (generally between 3 and 4 meters in height). Its maximum weight of stern jump can reach 45 tons, and its weight per square meter can reach 3 tons. Therefore, overweight trucks can be allowed to jump into the cabin through stern. 。
2． Large equipment. Generally speaking, the transportation of large-scale equipment is more complex. Some parts are larger and tonnage is larger. They can not be transported by general containers, while some spare parts can be transported by containers. RORO and CONTAINER are generally used in this type of ship, which can load large components and containers at the same time. Therefore, it is the ideal ship type for transportation of many large equipment.
So what kind of handling equipment is more reasonable for this type of ship?
BOLSTER FLATBED This equipment is suitable for large components less than 4 meters long and weighing less than 28 tons. The crane lifts the cargo to a flat plate with a lifting height not exceeding one meter (which can avoid cargo damage caused by swing and turnover during lifting). Then it uses special nylon belt (whose rigidity is equivalent to steel wire rope, but it can greatly reduce the wear and tear on the surface of cargo compared with steel wire rope) or steel wire rope padding. The cargo is fixed on a flat plate, and the forklift truck carries the cargo into the cabin through the stern jump of the ship.
ROLLTRAILER This kind of equipment is suitable for transporting overweight and oversize cargo. In theory, it can carry cargo of 25 meters long and 120 tons. However, due to the limitation of the carrying capacity of tail jump and tow, the actual carrying capacity will be smaller. ROLLTRAILER can be transported into the cabin by self-propelled tow through the stern of the ship, thus achieving zero damage to the cargo.
3． Train compartment. Because the train boxes are long and 40 meters long, the general ROLLTRAILER transport will not be able to rotate into the cabin due to the restrictions of hatches. SPECIALDESIGNED TRAILERS (Special Tire Bogie) can solve this problem. The tires of this equipment can rotate 360 degrees and can be transported back into the cabin when the ship's stern jumps into the cabin.