Washing machine is a kind of cleaner which uses electric energy to produce mechanical action to wash clothes. It can be divided into household and collective use according to its rated washing capacity.
China stipulates that washing capacity of less than 6 kg belongs to household washing machines: household washing machines are mainly composed of boxes, washing and dewatering barrels (some of which are separated from washing and dewatering barrels), transmission and control systems, and some are equipped with heating devices. Washing machines generally refer to the use of water as the main cleaning liquid, different from the use of special cleaning solutions, and usually responsible for dry cleaning.
From a national perspective, the market penetration of washing machines in China has exceeded 76%, of which urban market has exceeded 96% and rural market has exceeded 53%. With the policy of developing home appliances to the countryside and expanding domestic demand, washing machine enterprises have focused on the rural market with greater consumption potential. In the next few years, the demand growth space of washing machine market in China will mainly come from the first demand of urbanization and rural market, as well as the renewal demand of consumption upgrading in urban market. The demand of washing machine market will continue to maintain a moderate growth trend in the next few years.
In 2010, China's total sales of washing machines were about 50 million units, up nearly 30% year-on-year, and the growth rate reached the highest level in history. Among them, more than 330 million units were sold at home, up about 28% year-on-year, and more than 16 million units were exported, up more than 30% year-on-year, all of which reached the highest growth rate in history.
From the perspective of different products, in 2010, the total sales of drum washing machines in China reached more than 11 million units, an increase of more than 50% year on year, and the proportion of drum washing machines in the market increased from less than 20% last year to more than 20%. Among them, in the fourth quarter, monthly sales exceeded 1.1 million units, accounting for more than 21% of the total market sales of washing machines.
Water-saving will become the key development direction of washing machine in the future. The industrial goal of washing machine mainly covers three directions: energy-saving and water-saving, product function and green design. In the technical roadmap of refrigerators, air conditioners and washing machines compiled by China Household Electrical Appliances Association, in terms of energy saving and water saving, it is formulated that by 2015, the wave-wheel double-barrel washing machine will reach the national energy efficiency level 2, the wave-wheel type automatic washing machine will reach the national energy efficiency level 1, and the roller type automatic washing machine with energy efficiency level 1 will reach the European Union A+level. In order to meet the requirements of power consumption and water consumption, the drum type washing and drying machine should meet the requirements of GB/T 2318 A class power consumption and water consumption. By 2020, the drum washing machine meets the requirements of power and water consumption of European Union A++, the wave-wheel type automatic washing machine meets the requirements of power and water consumption of national standard A+, and the drum drying machine meets the requirements of national standard A+. In terms of product function, the development direction of washing machine is large capacity, low noise and low vibration.
Mechanical force, detergent and water are three essential factors in washing process. The mechanical force produced by the moving parts of the washing machine and the action of the washing liquid separated the dirt from the clothing fibers. Heating the detergent can enhance the decontamination effect. The suitable liquid temperature is different for different fabrics. The main indexes reflecting washing performance of washing machine (i.e. washing ability) are washing rate (or washing ratio) and wear rate of fabrics. The washing rate is the reflectivity of the Artificially Polluted cloth and its original cloth before and after washing by using the photoelectric reflectometer (or whiteness meter) under the rated washing condition of the washing machine. The history of washing machine development from ancient times to today, laundry is an inescapable household work, and before the emergence of washing machine, for many people, it is not as full of fun as the idyllic description, hand rubbing, batting, scouring, beating. These repeated and simple physical labor often leave people with the feeling of hard work.
In 1858, an American named Hamilton Smith built the world's first washing machine in Pittsburgh. The main part of the washing machine was a barrel, which contained a straight shaft with paddle-shaped leaves. The shaft was rotated by shaking a crank connected to it. Smith patented the washing machine the same year. But this washing machine is not widely used because of its laborious use and damage to clothes, but it marks the beginning of machine washing. The following year in Germany, a washing machine with a kneading pestle as a stirrer appeared. When the kneading pestle moved up and down, the wooden nails with springs acted continuously on the clothes. In the late 19th century, the washing machine developed into an octagonal laundry cylinder with a handle. When washing, hot soap water was put into the cylinder. After washing, the clothes were squeezed out by a rolling device.
In 1874, the era of hand washing was challenged unprecedentedly. Bill Blakes, an American, invented the wooden hand washing machine. Blacks'washing machine is very simple to build. It is equipped with six blades in a wooden cylinder, driven by a handle and a gear, so that clothes can be turned inside the cylinder to achieve the purpose of "cleaning clothes". With the advent of this device, those who meditate hard to improve their life efficiency are greatly inspired, and the improvement process of washing machines has begun to accelerate greatly.
In 1880, steam washing machines appeared again in the United States, and steam power began to replace manpower. After hundreds of years of development and improvement, the modern steam washing machine has been incomparably improved in the earlier period, but the principle is the same. The functions of modern steam washing machine include steam washing and steam drying. Intelligent water circulation system is adopted, which can double spray high concentration washing liquid and high temperature steam on clothes at the same time. It runs through the whole washing process and achieves a new washing mode of "steam washing" with global originality. Unlike ordinary drum washing machines, which need to heat the water of the whole drum when washing, steam washing aims at deep cleaning clothes. When a small amount of water enters the steam generating box and converts into steam, clothes stains are decomposed by high temperature jet. Steam washing is fast and thorough. It only needs a small amount of water and saves time. For winter clothes that have been in the wardrobe for a long time and produce wrinkles and odors, they can stretch and smooth the wrinkles naturally. The working principle of "steam drying" is to spray constant steam on clothes. After the clothes are stretched out, the clothes are then dried by constant temperature condensation. In this way, heavy clothing not only dries faster, but also has the effect of stretching and ironing.