Technical equipment is the material basis for realizing air transportation. It mainly includes routes, airports, aircraft and communication and navigation facilities. Route is a corridor protected airspace based on ground navigation facilities, and it is the field of aircraft flight. Its delimitation is centered on the line connecting each ground navigation facility, and the upper limit height, the lower limit height and the width are stipulated in the range of the route. For aircraft flying within its scope, air traffic control should be implemented. Airport is an integral part of civil airport and related service facilities. It is the base for safe take-off and landing of aircraft, and also the gathering and distributing center for passengers, cargo and mail. Aircraft is the main carrier. The selection of aircraft type depends on the specific situation of the flight route and the overall economic and technological performance. Communication and navigation facilities are facilities for communicating information, guiding aircraft to fly safely and landing safely at their destination (see aviation pilot).
Because of the importance of air transport to the development of national economy and the promotion of international exchanges, most countries attach great importance to the development of air transport. The government has set up special agencies to manage such enterprises as the General Administration of Civil Aviation in China, the Federal Aviation Administration in the United States and the Ministry of Civil Aviation in the former Soviet Union. Various preferential policies have been implemented to support the development of air transport enterprises, such as government direct investment, loans, tax relief and financial subsidies.
Air transport enterprises mainly operate in the form of shift transport, charter transport and special aircraft transport. The latter two are temporary arrangements as needed. Duration transportation is to carry out transportation tasks along fixed routes and at fixed time according to schedule and fixed type of aircraft. When there are more passengers and cargo to be transported, overtime flights along the regular transport routes can also be organized. The operational quality of air transport is mainly evaluated from three aspects: safety level, economic benefit and service quality.
Air transportation began in 1871. At that time, the French in the Franco-Prussian War used balloons to transport government officials, materials, mail and other goods out of Paris besieged by the Prussian army. On May 5, 1918, air transport first appeared, with routes from New York to Washington to Chicago. On June 8 of the same year, regular postal flights began between London and Paris. In the 1930s, there were civil transport planes, and various technical performances were constantly improved. The development of the aviation industry promoted the development of air transport. After the end of the Second World War, the world has gradually established a network of routes. The network of world routes, starting from the major cities of various countries, covers all continents. In 1990, the total turnover of world scheduled flights reached 235.67 billion tons per kilometer.
The weight of the goods is calculated by gross weight. The unit of calculation is kilograms. Weight less than 1 kilogram, according to 1 kilogram, more than 1 kilogram of the tail rounded.
The weight of each cargo loaded by a non-wide-body aircraft does not exceed 80 kg and the volume does not exceed 40*60*100 M. The weight of each cargo loaded by a wide-body aircraft generally does not exceed 250 kg. Volume generally does not exceed 250*200*160 cm. Goods exceeding the above weight and volume shall be accepted and transported by Northwest Company on the basis of specific conditions.
The length, width and height of each cargo shall not be less than 40 cm.
cargo with a volume exceeding 6000 cubic centimeters per kilogram shall be weighed in light bubble cargo. Light bubble cargo is measured in kilograms per 6000 cubic centimeters.